Chief engineers may work individually or lead teams of 4, 6 or even more subordinates, depending on the size of the yacht. An engineering team would work together to operate, maintain and repair basically anything that moves or makes a noise on board the vessel, from outboard engines to electrical generators, propulsion engines to hydraulic and electronic systems.
Chief engineers on yachts come from extremely varied backgrounds from all over the world, but what they all have in common is a curious and analytical mind, an interest in mechanics or electronics, a problem solving attitude and a love for fixing things. We routinely recruit engineers who make a transition from a different field, such as the army, the navy or the automotive industry, for example. Provided they are willing to invest their time and energy into transferring their existing engineering skills and obtaining the required yachting certifications or equivalencies, they can turn yacht engineering into their second career.
Others come to yachting at a very early age and simply go up the ladder, as one would do in any other industry. Having a degree in Engineering or other fields is not a prerequisite, but, of course, going to a Maritime College to obtain a commercial engineering licence will open many doors, especially as yachts are getting larger. Having said that, many young "petrol-heads," who enjoyed tinkering in their garage, have gone on to become great yacht engineers. Others started as deckhands and discovered that they had an interest for more technical goings-on aboard and went from there; starting to do their first recognised course, the AEC (Approved Engine Course). The point is, no two yacht engineers have the same profile, so if you are interested, go for it!
The AEC mentioned above is only a 4-day course and is the entry level requirement to assist in the engine room. Depending on the tonnage and kilowatt rating of a yacht, different engineering licences will be required to work as a chief yacht engineer.
A Quick Summary of the Y4
Y4 Certificate of Competency (CoC) or the Y4 Certificate of Equivalent Competency (CeC) is obtained from the MCA (Maritime and Coastguard Agency) in the UK. The Yacht 4 (Y4) Certificate of Competency (CoC) is necessary for applicants to prove they have the internationally recognised skills to become chief yacht engineers. It is an extremely challenging course. Standards remain high, but there is demand for competent and knowledgeable superyacht engineers and the career rewards are worth it.
Completing the Y4 course allows holders to progress onto the Y3 and then Y2 and provides excellent career prospects.
Which job can you get with Y4?
This certificate allows you to be a Chief Engineer on a yacht less than 200GT and less than 1,500KW. Most engineers will not stop at the Y4 licence and will carry on studying towards higher licenses allowing them to work on larger, more powerful yachts. Remember however, a higher grade of qualification is not a guaranteed job promotion, especially on a larger vessel. This comes with time served with a consequent gain in experience and ability.
What does Y4 entail?
Candidates must study three modules and pass an engineering skills test in order for the Maritime and Coastguard Agency to permit them to apply for a Notice of Eligibility. Candidates are then able to undertake an oral exam and attain the Y4 qualification.
Initial three modules:
The Marine Diesel Engineering certificate covers the working principles and maintenance of diesel and petrol engines, including turbochargers, engine construction, engine safety devices, engine room layouts and auxiliary systems. The course also provides lecturer led learning about the application of oils, cooling water systems, heat exchangers and starting systems.
The Auxiliary Equipment certificate encompasses the working principles and maintenance of various valves, pumps, compressed air systems, hydraulic control systems, batteries, clutches, gearboxes, propellers, thrusts, shafting and bearings. It also covers basic ship construction technology and fundamental knowledge of hull stresses in motor and sailing vessels.
The Operational Procedures, Basic Hotel Services and Ship Construction certificate gives an overview of legal, operational and environmental issues. This module includes the role of watch keeping, maintenance procedures, safe working practices, pollution control and fire fighting. Merchant shipping notices, record keeping, the operation of sewage plants, fresh water management and motion control are also addressed, along with aspects of ship construction.
The Engineering Skills Test:
The Engineering Skills Test has been designed to allow candidates to prove their engineering abilities. Students are expected to independently demonstrate skills in fitting, assembly, and electrical maintenance without instruction from supervisors. Tasks include inspection, maintenance and safe use of equipment including hand tools, drilling machines and bench-mounted grinders. Students are expected to be proficient in electrical testing and wiring, whilst also recognising common components, symbols and configuration.
These three modules, the Engineering Skills Test and the ENG1 Medical certificate are prerequisites to qualify for the final oral exam.
Applicants must take an oral exam for the Y4 certification to prove they are familiar with a number of aspects of superyacht engines.
The exams can be taken in any order but it is recommended that you begin with the Marine Diesel Engineering, followed by the Operational and Hotel, finishing with the Auxiliary Equipment before the final oral exam. If you take the modules in this order, you will progress in a more natural way, since the Auxiliary Equipment is the most demanding.